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The history of aeronautics is inextricably linked with inevitable accidents. You can remember the legendary Icarus, who fell from the sky into the water. The very first aircraft crashes occurred at the end of the 19th century. Then the number of accidents and casualties was quite large relative to the entire number of flights. In the middle of the 20th century, the era of mass air travel began. This has significantly increased both the number of victims and the number of tragedies.
When aeronautics came to third world countries, this trend only worsened. The plane crash reached its peak in the 70s, when planes were used by terrorists. But over the past decades, much has been done to improve aviation safety standards.
While many people still fear flying, unrelenting statistics show that the risk of dying in a plane crash today is quite low. Major disasters in the air remain part of history, let us recall the most significant of them.
USS Akron. At that time, airships were defined by airships. Akron was one of the largest of its kind in the world. It could carry up to five aircraft and was intended for naval reconnaissance. The airship was built in 1929 in the city of Akron, which gave it its name. The flying giant served the country for only a year and a half. During this time, several minor accidents happened to him. But thanks to the events of April 4, 1933, the airship was destined to go down in history. As Akron flew past the Barnegat Lighthouse in New Jersey, a strong wind rose and beat the ship mercilessly. The downdrafts of the air forced the airship to descend rapidly, a strong heel arose. On impact with water, Akron collapsed. Then 73 people died, and only three managed to escape. The main reason for the tragedy was bad weather conditions and the error of the pilots, who sent the ship into the open sea during a storm. The crew did not have life jackets or any means to stay on the water. This disaster became the end point of the airship service in the navy. After all, the main supporter of this, Admiral Moffett, died on Akron. And this disaster became the largest in the history of aeronautics.
The fall of the Turkish aircraft DC-10. We can say that it was this tragedy that opened a series of major and resonant accidents. The previous "record" for the number of victims was beaten twice at once. The Turkish airbus flew on the route Ankara-Istanbul-Paris-London. In the capital of France, many rugby fans who returned to England sat on him. Half an hour after takeoff, the poorly closed cargo door opened. An explosive decompression formed, which blew several seats overboard in a whirlwind. A machine control failure has occurred. 77 seconds after the accident, the plane crashed into a mountain 37 kilometers from Paris at tremendous speed. At the same time, the blow turned out to be of such force that nothing remained of the plane and everyone who was in it. There was not even a fire at the crash site. 346 people died, including 11 crew members. The cause of the accident was the flight engineer, who in the hustle and bustle did not bother to check the cargo hatch door before taking off. And the locking mechanism itself had design flaws.
Accident in Los Rodeos. Unfortunately, the planes collide not only in the sky but also on the ground. This incident took place on March 27, 1977. Then at the airport of Los Rodeos, Tenerife, two huge Boeing 747s collided. One flight took off at a speed of 250 km / h. But then another liner met him along the same strip. The tragedy was preceded by a terrorist attack at another major airport in the Canary Islands. It was temporarily closed, with the result that all aircraft were bound for Los Rodeos. Unsurprisingly, its lanes were congested. The planes were parked at all parking areas and even taxiways. Boeing of the KLM company during takeoff chose the wrong lane, misinterpreting the command of the controller. The situation was aggravated by heavy fog and problems with radio communications. As a result, the board of the Pan American company landed towards the taking off liner. All 234 passengers and 14 crew members of the Boeing KLM were killed in the impact. Of the Pan American passengers, 325 passengers and 9 members were killed. A terrible tragedy claimed the lives of a total of 583 people. The pilots, bad weather and coincidence of circumstances were to blame for this. That crash was the largest in terms of the number of casualties in civil aviation.
Plane crash over the Atlantic. The circumstances of the death of the Boeing 747 near the coast of Ireland on June 23, 1985 remain a mystery. The liner followed the course Montreal-London-Delhi-Bombay. At an altitude of 9400 meters, an explosion was heard in the plane, its remains fell into the Atlantic Ocean. Then only 329 people died. This was the largest plane crash over the sea. The investigation into the circumstances of that case took almost 20 years. It cost 130 million Canadian dollars. Canadian authorities have established that Indian extremists are to blame. A Sikh battle group based in North America planted a bomb in their luggage. This Indian people waged a bloody war for their independence and decided to draw attention to their problem in this way. Although the security services were notified of the impending terrorist attack, the explosives hit the plane in one of the passengers' bags. The explosion took place 190 kilometers from the coast. Based on the injuries of the victims, it was possible to establish a chain of events - an explosion, the collapse of the plane. However, today the Sikhs say that they were not involved in those events. The tragedy was allegedly set up by the US special services to discredit the freedom-loving people.
Plane crash near Tokyo. This tragedy remains the largest to have happened with a single aircraft. On August 12, 1985, 520 people died at once, and only 4 women were saved. And in this case, the accident happened with a Boeing 747. The plane took off from Tokyo, heading for Tokyo. 12 minutes after taking off from the ground at the liner, the keel collapsed. The breakdown led to a number of failures - the hydraulics failed, the pressure in the cabin dropped. Boeing lost control and began to fall. At an altitude of 4100 meters, the crew commander reported this. The team tried to correct the situation to the last by changing the engine thrust. The plane fell on the mountain, there was a strong fire on a steep slope. This made the task of the rescuers much more difficult. They arrived at the scene of the accident only 14 hours after the accident. An investigation showed that on June 2, 1978, the plane hit the landing strip with its tail. The repairs were made of insufficient quality, which led to the appearance of fatigue defects. The airline employees did not check the plane sufficiently, which then led to the tragedy.
Plane crash over the Persian Gulf. Sometimes, neither the pilots nor the technicians are to blame for the tragedy. Civil aircraft can be shot down by the military. The most famous incident occurred on July 3, 1988, with an Airbus A300 of Iranian Airlines. The flight was rather short, it was necessary to fly 28 minutes to Dubai. The flight seemed simple - take off to an altitude of 4300 meters, follow in a straight line and land. But at this time the US Navy cruiser Vinceness was operating in the Persian Gulf. He defended the Kuwaiti transports from the attacks of Iran and Iraq, which were at war with each other. According to official data from the American authorities, the cruiser mistakenly identified an Iranian warplane in the Airbus. From a distance of 20 kilometers, 2 missiles were fired at it, hitting the target. The Americans recognized those events as a military incident, and the ship's commander was not punished. The plane crash killed 290 people, including 66 children and 16 crew members. The Iranian authorities believe that the attack on the plane in neutral waters is a crime. Only 8 years later, the United States agreed to pay the sum of $ 62 million as a voluntary act, and not as compensation.
Collision over Delhi. It would seem, how can planes collide in the vast sky? Meanwhile, such cases also occur. This disaster was one of the largest in the history of civil aviation and the most significant in a collision of two aircraft in the air. On November 12, 1996, an IL-76 took off from the Kazakhstani Chimkent, flying to Delhi. On board, in addition to 10 crew members, there were 27 passengers. Later, a Boeing 747 took off from Delhi and flew to Jeddah. On board there were 312 people, mostly Indians, who flew to Saudi Arabia to work. The Il-76 unexpectedly dropped to the altitude at which the Boeing was flying. At 75 kilometers from Delhi, the planes crashed into each other at a speed of 500 kilometers per hour each. The force of the impact was 700 times stronger than that of a car collision. More than 500 tons of burning metal fell to the ground, the debris scattered over a distance of 8 kilometers. All people died. The first to arrive at the scene were not rescuers, but looters. Rescuers were not even able to identify all the bodies of the passengers. The crew of the Kazakh flight was named guilty, but it is worth mentioning that at that time the airport would have been the only active civilian in the country. He found himself overwhelmed, which increased the risk of collisions.
Terrorist attack on September 11, 2011. On the morning of this day, a whole group of 19 terrorists hijacked 4 planes at once. Two of them were aimed at the towers of the World Trade Center, which led to the complete destruction of the skyscrapers. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon building near Washington, and another crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Then 246 people died in the planes. All in all, as a result of the global terrorist attack, 2,977 people became victims. The footage of those events spread all over the world. This caused the most real chaos in the country. All commercial flights were canceled and the landings of domestic flights were also suspended. An official investigation has revealed that the al-Qaeda terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden is behind everything. The suicide bombers who hijacked the plane took pilot courses and outwardly did not at all resemble shahids. The recorder said that in one of the planes, passengers and crew members learned that other hijacked planes were heading for buildings. A fight ensued, during which the terrorists sent the plane into the ground. It is believed that initially they wanted to send him to the Capitol. Those events significantly changed the modern world. The governments of the largest countries have stepped up the fight against terrorism. America, in search of the main culprits, unleashed a war in the Middle East. True, many questions remain about those events. Perhaps the main organizers were the American special services. Thus, they increased their influence, and the largest financial tycoons in the country profited from the military company.
The Korean Boeing incident. In this case, a civilian plane was shot down by the military. It happened not far from Sakhalin Island. A South Korean Boeing 747 flew from New York to Seoul. The route was supposed to pass over the Pacific Ocean, bypassing the territory of the USSR. It was the heyday of the Cold War, which is why relations between the two superpowers were particularly tense at that moment. On September 1, 1983, the American reconnaissance aircraft RC-135 was also in the air. At some time, he crossed the course with a passenger liner deviated from its path. When Boeing invaded the air borders of the USSR, our air defense forces mistook the plane for a military one. Two Su-15 interceptors were raised into the sky. They caught up with the intruder and accompanied him. Then, on command from the ground, two rockets were fired at the Boeing. The plane fell into the sea, and all 269 people in it were killed. The events caused a huge resonance in the world. In Korea, Soviet flags were burned, Reagan accused the USSR of crimes against humanity. Further investigation revealed that the pilots simply misadjusted the autopilot and, until the last moment, had no idea that they had deviated from the route. The pilots did not see the interceptor either.
The catastrophe near Smolensk. These events happened quite recently, but the reason for them is almost already clear. On April 10, 2010 near Smolensk, a Tu-154 of the Polish Air Force crashed. Then 96 people died. The tragedy spread all over the world, because the President of Poland Lech Kaczynski, his wife, almost all the army command of the country, politicians, prominent public and religious figures were in the liner. At one point the country was left decapitated. A week of mourning was declared in Poland. The plane flew in heavy fog, and the crew was notified of this. The pilots were asked to land at an alternate airfield, but they refused. The plane caught on trees, turned around and began to fall apart in the air. According to the official version, crew errors were the cause of the accident. However, the Polish authorities insist on the fact that the pilots were forced to land in such conditions by the Russian dispatchers.